The definite article: “the”
The indefinite articles: “a / an”
→ non- specific
This one / that one
anyone/ one of many
Singular countable nouns
Plural countable nouns
ᴓ Apples → some apples
ᴓ Birds → some birds
ᴓ Water → some water
ᴓ Milk → some milk
a/ an → indefinite articles:
− “a” is used before singular countable nouns beginning with a consonant: a book/ a student.
− “an” is used before singular countable nouns beginning with a vowel: an apple/ an orange.
− “a” and “an” are used with nouns that have not been known before by both the speaker and the listener.
The → definite article: “the” is used with singular and plural countable nouns, and uncountable nouns. It is used with nouns which have been known before by both the speaker and the listener.
− Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns are without articles: a dog → ᴓ dogs/ ᴓ water
− Sports : ᴓ football/ ᴓ tennis/ ᴓ basketball…….
− Before names of meals: ᴓ lunch/ ᴓ dinner……
− Before names of countries and cities: ᴓ Morocco/ ᴓ Rabat……
− Before names of languages: ᴓ Arabic/ ᴓ English……
− Before names of academic subjects: ᴓ maths/ ᴓ geography/ ᴓ physics